Tag Archives: tacit knowledge

Mining the Tacit Database

12 May

If an organisation is trying to use experience as a resource to learn and develop, what’s an effective approach? Every organisation has a “tacit database”, the experience based skills and reasoning people use every day to effectively complete tasks, solve problems, and innovate. The tacit database, however, is combined of taken for granted rules of thumb (heuristics), meaning that people do impressive things, but struggle to explain how they did it.  This leaves an organisation knowing far more than it can say– the tacit database is frequently a hidden asset.

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Why Time is Essential to Data Analysis

21 Aug

In this article I’ll discuss how the concept of time is absent in many data analysis methods. The brain receives data as a moving pattern; no image is static or processed as static by the neo cortex. Not factoring in this dynamic in analysis can produce statistically significant results but which ultimately have no worth for organisations.

When exploring how people analyse data it’s actually worth taking a quick look at how the brain operates. The neo-cortex, a thin sheet covering the majority of the brain, houses neurons. The neurons have strands, known as the axons and dendrites, which join together to from synapses which have action potentials. All stimuli which enter the brain are actually a moving pattern (as opposed to just image) and using memory, certain responses are activated in response to certain types of incoming data.

Hawking et al (2004) provide a good example of how this works- when you throw a ball suddenly at someone the brain applies a very quick short cut to catch it by using memory. So, the two takeaway points from this very crude and over simple description of the brain are- the brain is a pattern recognition “machine” which identifies patterns in time\ motion and activates actions available in memory.

The description of the above is fundamental to the analysis both conceptually and practically of data; it’s all about how we recognise and react to patterns. In my last blog I referred to a research study I’d conducted examining how power and influence could be communicated effectively via e mail. A respondent in this study, during the course of 2 years, had changed jobs and had tacitly adapted their e mail style to adapt to the new perceptions people had of this respondent when they changed roles. In short- commands and distance became negotiations and social bargaining.

If the respondent had not adapted their mental model of the world after changing roles they would have lost the ability to get things done effectively (this was empirically evident). This would have meant using the existing memory to respond to different patterns. The respondent had recognised the leverage point between using their old style of communicating and the incoming new style in which people were responding to them, so they expanded and adapted their memory store. This provided the respondent with a richer mental model of the world as they learned a new reservoir of responses to new patterns.

The analysis of data is crucial to making sense of information, and good analysis requires what the respondent in question demonstrated- SITUATIONAL AWARENESS. This basically means maintaining a sense of a situation even whilst the surrounding patterns might change rapidly. This allows you to not only recognise subtle changes in a pattern; it also allows you to produce descriptions and actions. The richer your mental model the more situational awareness you can maintain.

Our brains process life as a song not an image (Hawking et al), absolutely nothing is static, everything is in motion, and this is because everything unfolds through time. We severely undermine our analytical effectiveness by analysing data out of time by trying to get only mathematical traction on events, this doesn’t build our reservoir of memory and potential actions, and it simply produces data. To better analyse data we need to understand the flow of time and seek to maintain situational awareness, not just create chains of events.

A way of illustrating this is by imagining predictive statistics as a snake; the snake starts at the tail, this is the current moment in time, and the rest of the snake, all the way to the end of its head is the predictive trend. The snake is a picture, an image, it illustrates a trend but it exists out of time, to place the snake back in time is where situational awareness comes in. By increasing the understanding of a domain we set the snake in motion, we begin to see potential rocks it might encounter, how a weather system might lead to a flood causing the snake to change direction, a potential avalanche or a particularly good run of weather which might accelerate its journey. As we think about the journey through a domain we can start to plan for potentials, to better equip the snake and identify contingencies it might need to make.

Data analysis is greatly enhanced when we first understand the system we are attempting to analyse and its flow. The respondent in the email study understood that a fluent, dynamic domain first required an understanding of the mental model of the person they were communicating with. By collecting (tacitly) a more expansive memory of the e mail domain they operated in, the respondent was able to analyse data more effectively. They had linked data and time, and I would suggest the sum of data + time is adaption.

Organisational analytics can be improved through capturing and increasing organisational wisdom through memory, a system of analogy and there is likely a software enabler here. This is my current research challenge, to place time in data analysis leading to maintained situational awareness and improved data driven decisions. To analyse data from a pure quantitative stance is like jumping off a cliff and expecting not to fall, universal laws still apply!!

How People Make Sense of Data

19 Aug

My first real encounter with tacit knowledge and the role it played in organisations happened years ago while I was a post graduate researcher. I was analysing over 16 thousand e mails to see how power and influence could be levered electronically. In other words how do you get someone to analyse data (in this case an e mail) in the way you want them to.

I was particularly fascinated by one respondent’s e mails over the course of 2 years because the person changed jobs. The respondent started off in a senior position running a department within an organisation and moved to head a virtual purchasing centre which sat in an ambiguous position on the periphery of the same organisation; no one quite knew what the centres reporting lines were, just that it was meant to handle purchasing in a more efficient way. So, same person, same organisation, different job; let’s call this respondent X and the first job A and the second job B

In job A the e-mails’s of X were short, direct and to the point; emotionally distant and assertive. And it got the job done, X’s task was to operate the department and X had the formal authority to do it, the team responded positively to X’s requests. In job B, X still needed resources from the old team and started off e mail requests in exactly the same way- emotionally distant and assertive. Unfortunately for X the result wasn’t the same and X struggled to get any requests met. X’s mental model initially remained the same but the environment had changed, the new role and the virtual centre were no longer perceived as a priority by former colleagues.

Instead of becoming frustrated X’s e mails started to change, the emails became more social, expressed understanding of the recipient’s position and the stresses of competing demands, and X began negotiating solutions. Within the space of a few months X’s request were being met promptly again, via a different approach. Where once X held formal authority they now had only their tacit skills to fall back on, and these tacit skills worked well as they began negotiating and not demanding.

The study and the example are all about data, all this happened via e mail. Respondent X demonstrated tacit skills which allowed them to lever power and influence to get things done. For other respondents in the study the outcome was sometimes quite the opposite- they had their mental model, expected the world to share it and failed to adapt when the feedback suggested otherwise. And this previous statement is key as I’ll highlight the tacit data analysis skills X deployed to adapt.

Respondent X had an existing mental model, they were in charge. When the environment changed X was sensitive to the feedback they were getting and realised a change was necessary, but change to what? At first X copied the e mail style of the person they were communicating with, if the other person would open with Hi so would X (it used to be Dear or just a first name), if the other person was chatty so would X be.

The copying provided a rapport and more information, by copying the other person X was allowed more and more access to the other person’s mental model. For example- if someone asked how X was, they would provide an answer with some substance (I’m fine, but very busy with the current deadline as oppose to just fine), and would receive similar information in return. Copying acted as a means of obtaining more information and managing the uncertainty. From copying X was able to adapt and draw up a richer model of replies, requests and negotiating tactics; copy and adapt helped X manage uncertainty, get the virtual centre up and running and eventually be seen as success.

As with most people who achieve what X had done through tacit skills they were largely unaware of their own actions until it was formally discussed. X wrote it down and said they would pass it onto their deputy who was currently having trouble getting their requests met! The way I look back on this is through the concepts of copy and adapt- X was sensitive to feedback and used copying to build up a range of mental analogies which enabled them to negotiate electronically- this looks situation A so I’ll try A, then wait for feedback and adapt if required.

The study is probably more relevant than ever. When faced with uncertainty, confusing or vast amounts of data, using an analogy to anchor, set up some feedback loops, copy the analogy, and then adapt.